Can be there two groups praying at the same place (JAMAAH) at the same time? Please tell the proof from the QURAN and SUNAH.
You didn't specify what you mean by "place", therefore the ruling depends where the place is. If the place is not at the Masjid, such as at home, in an office building, in a farm, in the forest, in a rest area (on the road), in a park (picnic area) etc., then it is allowed to have two Jamaa prayers at the same time, although it is strongly recommended to have a single one even if the people in the same area don't know each others (such as in a park). As you know, when Muslims pray together, there is a stronger sense of unity and the larger the number of Muslims are in a single prayer, the more reward there is and the closer they are to God. Also, there is always hope to have someone in the prayer whose supplication (du'a) is accepted so that the reward is shared to the whole group.
On the other hand, if you mean by place the "masjid", then it is totally prohibited to have jamaa prayer at the same time because the very purpose of coming to the Masjid is to unite the Muslims and having two jamaa is contradictory to this essential purpose of a Masjid because it is one way to disunite the Muslims.
There are many proofs for this ruling and we will only mention one stated in Surah at-Taubah (9) verse 107 (please refer to it).
And there are those who put up a mosque by way of mischief and infidelity - to disunite the Believers - and in preparation for one who warred against Allah and His Messenger aforetime. They will indeed swear that their intention is nothing but good; But Allah doth declare that they are certainly liars. (At- Taubah 9 :107)
Imam Qurtubi (one of the greatest interpreters of the Qur'an) explained this verse by stating that when Imam Malik pondered about this verse, he (Imam Malik) said that two Jamaa prayers are not allowed in the same Mosque with two different Imams because it is [a way] of breaking apart the Word (refer back to the verse) and [a way] of negating the wisdom behind this ruling, and an excuse to say: [well], whoever wants to disunite [himself] from the Jamaa has a right to do so, then this person establishes his own jamaa and becomes an Imam, then conflict arises and the order is broken apart.
How many raka's of sunnah are to be prayed before and after the farz of the juma prayers? Can these be prayed in 2's [2+2+...] ?
Before the obligatory Jumua prayer, there are two opinions: the Hanafi school of thought says 4 consecutive Rakaats (not 2, then salaam, then 2 more), while the Shafii school of thought says 2 Rakaats only. Both of these opinions are considered valid. As to the number of Rakaats after the Jumua prayer, it is only two according to both schools of thought. As to the issue of splitting the four rakaats into two sets (before and after the Jumua prayer), you don't have to do this because there are already two rakaats which are set for after the Jumua prayer, so there is no point to split them.
Friday prayer.... salaam...due to my job, sometimes I am unable to read the Friday Jumma prayer. Can you tell me how much sin is it, if somebody has lost three Jummas consequently. Also is any reason justified, due to work?
Every Muslim male should be dedicated to performing Friday Jumu`ah Prayer at its appointed times because not performing the Friday Prayer without any valid excuse is a serious sin in Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said, “Whoever leaves three Jum`ah Prayers consecutively out of neglect on his part, Allah will put a seal on his heart.”
Responding to the question, Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and
Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada,
states the following:
Excerpted, with slight modifications, from: www.islamonline.net
4. Khutbah in Arabic AND TWO AZANS
Is that necessary or not that Khateeb talk for 5 minutes in the language which is understood by local people?
Can only the AZAN for Kutba for Jumma be called or both AZANS must be called.
The fuqaha are unanimously agreed that it is better for the khutbah to be in Arabic, but they differed as to whether that is essential. There are three points of view:
1. That it is essential for it to be in Arabic for the one who is able to do that, even if the listeners do not know Arabic.
This is the view of the Maalikis and it is the well-known view of the Hanbalis.
See: al-Fawaakih al-Diwaani (1/306) and Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’ (2/34).
2- That it is essential for it to be in Arabic for the one who is able to do that, unless none of the listeners know Arabic, in which case he should give the khutbah in their language.
This is the correct view according to the Shaafa’is, and it is the view of some of the Hanbalis.
See: al-Majmoo’ by al-Nawawi (4/522).
3- It is mustahabb for the khutbah to be in Arabic but it is not essential, and the khateeb may deliver the khutbah in his own language instead of Arabic. This is the view of Abu Haneefah and some of the Shaafa’is.
See: Radd al-Muhtaar (1/543) and al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (19/180).
This third view is the correct one, and it is the view favoured by a number of our contemporary scholars, because there is no clear evidence to say that the khutbah must be in Arabic, and because the purpose of the khutbah is to exhort, benefit and teach, which can only be done by using the language of the people present.
There is no proof in the hadeeth to suggest that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stipulated that the Friday khutbah should be in Arabic, rather he delivered the khutbah in Arabic because it was his language and the language of his people. So the one who addressed them and guided them and reminded them spoke in their language that they understood. But he sent letters in Arabic to the kings and rulers of nations, and he knew that they spoke languages other than Arabic, and he knew that they would have them translated into their languages so that they would know what was in them.
Based on this, it is permissible for the khateeb to deliver the khutbah in a language where the people or the vast majority of its inhabitants do not know Arabic to deliver the khutbah in Arabic then translate it into the local language, so that they will understand what he is advising and reminding them of, and they will benefit from his khutbah.
He may also deliver the khutbah in the language of his country, even if it is not Arabic, and thus he will accomplish the guidance, teaching, exhortation and reminder that are the purpose of the khutbah.
But it is better to deliver the khutbah in Arabic and then translate it to the listeners, so as to combine the guidance of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in his khutbahs and his letters with achieving the aim of giving the khutbah, and so as to avoid an area concerning which there is scholarly dispute. End quote.
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (8/253).
Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Perhaps it is better, and Allah knows best, to discuss this matter in detail and say:
If the majority of people in the mosque are non-Arabic speakers who do not understand Arabic, then there is nothing wrong with giving the khutbah in a language other than Arabic, or delivering it in Arabic then translating it.
But if most of the people present know Arabic and understand it in general, then it is better to stick to Arabic and not go against the guidance of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), especially since the salaf used to deliver khutbahs in mosques where there were non-Arabs present, and it is not narrated that they used to translate it, because Islam was prevalent and so was Arabic.
As for the evidence that it is permissible in cases of necessity; there is some evidence to that effect in sharee’ah. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
told us in Quran “Ò We sent not a Messenger except (to teach) in the language of their nation in order to make (things) clear to them....” (Ibraheem 14:4)
For example, when the Sahaabah invaded non-Arab lands such as Persia and Byzantium, they did not fight them until they called them to Islam via interpreters. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Baaz (12/372).
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
The correct view with regard to this matter is that it is permissible for the khateeb to deliver the khutbah in a language that the people present understand, if the people present are not Arabs and do not know Arabic. He may deliver the khutbah in their language, because that is the means of explaining to them, and the purpose of the khutbah is to explain the sacred limits of Allah to His slaves, and exhort them, and guide them. But the verses of Qur'aan should be recited in Arabic, then explained in the language of the people.
So after local language khutba, it is recommended that khutba should be given in Arabice also, as is practiced in most areas of the world. Arabic language has merits over other languages, because it is the language which will be used in Heaven and people are rewarded to learn it and or teach it. Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) said 'love the Arabs for three reasons; because I am an Arab, the Qur'an is in Arabic and it is the language of the Heaven'.
Yes, one Azan for the Khutbah of Jumaa is considered sufficient and the prayer and Khutbah are considered valid. However, doing two Azans (instead of one) is a Sunnah and is recommended.
And Allah knows best.
What is the legal minimum number of Muslims required to perform Friday Prayer? We heard that it should be at least 40 persons and we don't have such number of Muslims in the city where we live.
The issue of the minimum number of people required to make Friday prayer valid is a matter of divergence among Muslim scholars. Some of them say it is yes, others say it is not. Both opinions are valid. If you live in a non-Muslim country where the Muslims are a minority, we still advise you to meet every Friday and perform the prayer in order to maintain this important. There is a disagreement among the Muslim scholars regarding this topic.
For the Shafii school, 40 people must be present. For the Maliki school, 12 people, while for the Hanafi school, three people must be present in addition to the Imam.
In his book “Fiqh-us-Sunnah”, the late Sheikh Sayyed Sabiq (may be pleased with him) states:
"There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a condition for the validity of Salatul Jumu`ah (Friday Prayer). This is based on the Hadith of Tariq Ibn Shihab who reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Al-Jumu`ah is an obligation (Wajib) upon every Muslim in the community."
However, the scholars differ on how many people are required for Salatul Jumu`ah. There are about fifteen opinions on this issue and Ibn Hajar mentions them in "Fath Al-Bari". The view believed to be the most correct is that Salatul Jumu`ah is valid if there are two or more people present. This is based on the Hadith in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said: "Two or more constitute a congregation."
Imam Ash-Shawkani states: “The other Prayers are considered to be made in congregation if there are two people present. The same applies to Salatul Jumu`ah, unless there is a reason for it to be different. There is no evidence to show that [for the purpose of the congregation] its number should be larger than that for the other Prayers.”
Abdul Haqq says: “There is no confirmed Hadith on the number of people needed for Salatul Jumu`ah.”
Likewise, As-Sayuti holds: “There is no confirmed Hadith that states a particular number (for Salatul Jumu`ah)." This is also the opinion held by At-Tabari, Dawud, An-Nakha`i, and Ibn Hazm.“
Based on the above-mentioned Fatwa, we can conclude that it is valid for you to hold Salatul Jumu`ah with two or more persons, and it is not a condition to reach the number you mentioned in the question.
Excerpted, with slight modifications, from: www.islamonline.net
6. JUMMA RAKAT BEFORE AND AFTER
How many raka's of sunnah are to be prayed before and after the farz of the Juma prayers?
When I go to the mosque on Friday the athaan is pronounced, then everyone prays 2 or 4 rakaat. Then athan is again pronounced and immediately after it iqamah. Having prayed 2 Jum'ah rakaat, people pray again 2 or 4 rakaat.
Besides, the imaam when supplicating raises hands then wipes his face and everyone follows him. Is it bid'ah? If so, what should I do (just look at others?)
Answer: Praise be to Allah.
Before the obligatory Jumua prayer, there are two opinions: the Hanafi school of thought says 4 consecutive Rakaats (not 2, then salaam, then 2 more), while the Shafii school of thought says 2 Rakaats only. Both of these opinions are considered valid. As to the number of Rakaats after the Jumua prayer, it is only two according to both schools of thought.
The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to come out of his house on the day of Jumu’ah (Friday) and climb up on his minbar. Then the muezzin would give the Adhaan, and when he finished, the Prophet (PBUH) would start his khutbah. If there were any Sunnah prayer to be done before Jumu’ah, he (PBUH) would have told them about it and directed them to do it after the Adhaan, and he would have done it himself. At the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) there was nothing apart from the Adhaan just before the khutbah.
Hence the majority of the imaams agreed that there is no sunnah to be done at a specific time before Jumu’ah with a specific number of rak’ahs, because that would have been reported from the words or actions of the Prophet (PBUH), and nothing of that nature has been reported from him. This is the madhhab of Maalik, al-Shaafa’i and most of his companions, and is the well known view in the madhhab of Ahmad.
Al-‘Iraaqi said: “I have not seen anything to indicate that the three imams recommended praying Sunnah before it (Jumu’ah).”
The muhaddith al-Albaani commented:
For that reason this so-called Sunnah is not mentioned by Imaam Al-Shaafa’i, or by Imaam Ahmad, or by any of the other early imaams, as far as I know.
However many saheeh reports indicate that what is prescribed for the Muslim when he comes to the mosque on Friday is to pray whatever Allah wills, he should pray before the imaam comes out. The Prophet (PBUH) did not specify whether it should be two or four or more. All of that is good, but the minimum is two rak’ahs to “greet the mosque.”
Prophet (PBUH) said: “The prayers of the night and the day (i.e., other than the obligatory prayers) are two by two.” (Narrated by Imaam Ahmad and the authors of Sunan with a hasan isnaad; the original is to be found in al-Saheeh without any mention of the day.)
It is not valid to draw an analogy between Jumu’ah and Zuhr prayer and say that it is mustahabb to offer the regular Sunnah prayer before Jumu’ah as it is mustahabb to do so before Zuhr, because Jumu’ah prayer is different from Zuhr prayer in many ways, and because this analogy is contrary to the apparent Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH), which is that he did not offer any regular Sunnah prayer before Jumu’ah.
The best guidance is the guidance of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). If the Prophet (PBUH) had offered any prayer before Jumu’ah, that would have been narrated to us. As there is no such narration, we know that he (PBUH) did not offer any regular Sunnah prayer before Jumu’ah.
Rakat after Jumma Prayer :
There are a number of ahaadeeth which speak of the number of rak’ahs to be prayed after Jumu’ah.
1- That the number should be two rak’ahs.
It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) did not offer any prayers after Jumu’ah until he left, then he prayed two rak’ahs. (Narrated by al-Bukhaari 937 and Muslim 882).
2- That the number should be four rak’ahs.
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: “When one of you has prayed Jumu’ah, let him pray four (rak’ahs) afterwards.” (Narrated by Muslim 881).
The scholars differed concerning that and there are a number of opinions based on the differences of these ahaadeeth.
The first view is that one should pray two rak’ahs. This was narrated from the actions of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him).
The second view, which is the view of the majority of fuqaha’, is that it is mustahabb to pray four rak’ahs after Jumu’ah. This was narrated from ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) and his companions, as it says in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (2/40-41). This is also the view favoured by the Hanafis, as it says in Radd al-Muhtaar (2/12-13), and it was the view favoured by Imam al-Shaafa’i in al-Umm (7/176) where he said: We say: he should pray four. End quote.
The third view is that one has the choice between two and four.
Imam Ahmad said: If he wishes he may pray two rak’ahs after Jumu’ah, or if he wishes he may pray four. End quote. Al-Mughni (2/109).
The fourth view is that it depends. If a person is offering the Sunnah prayer following Jumu’ah in the mosque, he should pray four rak’ahs and if he is offering it at home he should pray two rak’ahs only.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Our Shaykh Abu’l-‘Abbaas ibn Taymiyah said: If he prays in the mosque he should pray four and if he prays in his house he should pray two rak’ahs.
I (Ibn al-Qayyim) said: This is what is indicated by the ahaadeeth. Abu Dawood narrated from Ibn ‘Umar that when he prayed in the mosque he prayed four and when he prayed in his house he prayed two rak’ahs. End quote. (Zaad al-Ma’aad 1/417).
This view was favoured by the scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas.
See: Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (6/131).
The fifth view is that it is mustahabb to pray six rak’ahs. This is what is narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him) and from a number of the salaf. See: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (2/40-41). This is the view favoured by Abu Yoosuf and al-Tahhaawi among the Hanafis. See Sharh Ma’aani al-Aathaar (1/337). It was also narrated from Imam Ahmad as mentioned by Ibn Qudaamah in al-Mughni. Al-Haafiz Ibn Rajab regarded it as strange in al-Qawaa’id (p. 15).
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
How can we reconcile between the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), “When one of you has prayed Jumu’ah, let him pray four (rak’ahs) afterwards”, and his actions when he (PBUH) prayed two rak’ahs in his house?
The scholars differed concerning this.
Some of them said that he prayed six rak’ahs, two rak’ahs based on his actions and four based on his words. This is one view.
Another view is that what counts is the words, which is that one should pray four rak’ahs, so the Sunnah prayer after Jumu’ah is four rak’ahs.
The third view is that it depends. If one prays in the mosque then it should be four rak’ahs and if he prays at home it should be two.
This is the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him).
With regard to the prayer after Jumu’ah, Ibn al-Qayyim said in al-Zaad (1/440):
When the Prophet (PBUH) had prayed Jumu’ah, he would enter his house and pray two Rak’ahs of Sunnah, and he commanded those who had prayed it to pray four rak’ahs afterwards. Our shaykh, Abu’l-‘Abbaas Ibn Taymiyah said: if he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four, and if he prayed at home, he would pray two. I say: this is what is indicated by many ahaadeeth. Abu Dawood reported in his Sunan (1130) from Ibn ‘Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he prayed four and when he prayed at home, he prayed two.
It seems that the choice is between two rak’ahs or four, and differentiating between praying in the mosque or at home.
Praise be to Allah, the matter is broad in scope, i.e., if a person goes home and prays four rak’ahs with two tasleems, that is good and does no harm insha Allah. End quote. (Liqaa’aat al-Baab il-Maftooh no. 214, question no. 8).
And Allah knows best.
Excerpted, with slight modifications, from: http://islamqa.com/index.php?ln=eng
What is the ruling on one who hears the adhaan and even the iqaamah and then prayer itself, but does not come to pray?
What is the ruling on one who prays Jumu’ah (Friday prayer) only?
Answer: Praise be to Allah.
If a person hears the call to prayer but does not respond, his prayer (elsewhere and not in the mosque) does not count, unless he has a valid excuse. What is meant is that his prayer is imperfect and he is a sinner because he kept away from the prayer in congregation. Ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “No one keeps away from the prayer (in congregation) except a hypocrite who is known for his hypocrisy”. (Narrated by Muslim, 654)
Not responding to the muezzin implies weakness of faith, lack of religious commitment, not caring about reward and forsaking the houses of Allah.
said that the dua during the time of kutbah is accepted or there is a
moment in that period when it is answered. However it is also said while
listening to kutbah you should not talk and listen carefully. How can we
ask dua when we are not allowed to talk or distract our concentration?
The saheeh Sunnah indicates that there is a time on Friday when du’aa’s may be answered, and no Muslim happens to ask Allah for good at that time but He will give it to him, as it says in the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari (5295) and Muslim (852) from Abu Hurayrah who said: Abu’l-Qaasim (PBUH) said: “On Friday there is an hour when, if a Muslims happens to pray at that time and ask Allah for something good, He will give it to him.”
There are many views on when this time is. The most correct are two views:
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The most correct of these views are two which are mentioned in a proven ahaadeeth, and one of them is more likely than the other.
The first is that it is from the time when the imam sits on the minbar until the end of the prayer. The evidence for this opinion is the report which was narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh (853) from Abu Burdah ibn Abi Moosa al-Ash’ari who said: ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar said to me: Did you hear your father narrating from the Messenger of Allah (S) concerning the (special) hour on Friday? I said: Yes, I heard him say: I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say: “It is between the time when the imam sits down, until the prayer is over.”
Al-Tirmidhi (490) and Ibn Maajah (1138) narrated from Katheer ibn ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf al-Muzani from his father from his grandfather that the Prophet (PBUH) said: “On Friday there is an hour of the day during which no person asks Allah for something but He will give it to him.” It was said, When is that time? He said, “When the iqaamah for prayer is given, until the prayer ends.” [Shaykh al-Albaani said: It is da’eef jiddan (very weak)].
The second view is that it is after ‘Asr, and this is the more correct of the two views. This is the view of ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam, Abu Hurayrah, Imam Ahmad and others.
The evidence for this view is the report narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad (7631) from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri and Abu Hurayrah, that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “On Friday there is an hour when no Muslim happens to ask Allah for good at that time but He will give it to him, and it is after ‘Asr.” [In Tahqeeq al-Musnad its says: The hadeeth is saheeh because of corroborating evidence, but its isnaad is da’eef (weak)].
Abu Dawood (1048) and al-Nasaa’i (1389) narrated from Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allah that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH said: “Friday is twelve hours in which there is no Muslim who asks Allah for something but He will give it to him, so seek the last hour after ‘Asr.” [Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani].
Sa’eed ibn Mansoor narrated in his Sunan from Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmaan that some of the companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gathered and spoke of the (special) hour on Friday, then they parted and did not disagree that it is the last hour on Friday. [al-Haafiz classed its isnaad as saheeh in al-Fath, 2/489].
In Sunan Ibn Maajah (1139) it is narrated that ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam said: I said, when the Messenger of Allah (S) was sitting, We find in the Book of Allah that on Friday there is an hour when no believing slave happens to pray and ask Allah for anything at that time, but Allah will meet his need.‘ Abd-Allah said: The Messenger of Allah (S) pointed to me, saying, “Or some part of an hour.”
I said,” you are right, or some part of an hour”. I said, “what time is that”? He said, “It is the last hours of the day.” I said, “Is it not the time of the prayer”? He said, “Indeed, when a believing slave prays and then sits with nothing but the prayer keeping him, he is still in a state of prayer.”
Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani.
In Sunan Abi Dawood (1046), al-Tirmidhi (491) and al-Nasaa’i (1430) it is narrated from Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmaan that Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “The best day on which the sun rises is Friday. On it Adam was created, on it he was sent down (to earth), on it his repentance was accepted, on it he died and on it the Hour will begin. There is no living being but it is in a state of apprehension on Friday from dawn until sunrise fearing the onset of the Hour, except jinn and mankind. On it there is an hour when no Muslim happens to pray and ask Allah for what he needs, but He will give it to him. Ka’b said: Is that one day in every year? I said: No, it is every week. He said: Ka’b read the Tawraat (Torah) and said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) spoke the truth. Abu Hurayrah said: Then I met ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam and told him of my meeting with Ka’b, and ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam said: I know which time it is. Abu Hurayrah said: I said to him: Tell me about it. ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam said: It is the last hour of Friday. I said: How can it be the last hour of Friday when the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “No Muslim happens to pray at that time,” but there is no prayer at that time. ‘Abd-Allah ibn Salaam said: Didn’t the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say: “Whoever sits waiting for the prayer is in a state of prayer until he prays”? I said: Then this is it.
Al-Tirmidhi said: A saheeh and hasan hadeeth. Some of it is mentioned in al-Saheehayn. [It was classed as saheeh by al-Albaani.] End quote from Zaad al-Ma’aad (1/376).
According to the view that it is from the time when the imam sits down until the end of the prayer, that does not mean that the one who is praying behind the imam should distract himself with du’aa’ and not listen to the khutbah, rather he should listen to the khutbah and say ameen to the du’aa’ of the imam, and supplicate during his prayer, when prostrating and before the salaam.
By doing so, he will have offered du’aa’ during this special time, and if he also says du’aa’ in the last hour after ‘Asr, that is even better.
And Allah knows best.
What are valid excuses for not attending Daily Prayer in jamaa’ah (Cogregation) and Jumma Prayer?
It was reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “I nearly decided to tell my servants to gather firewood, then I would have told them to give the iqaamah and start praying, then I would have burned the houses of people who did not attend the prayer.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 201; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani, may Allah have mercy on him; Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 1/69).
Abu ‘Eesaa said: the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah is a saheeh hasan hadeeth. It was also narrated from other companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that they said: “Whoever hears the call [to prayer] and does not respond, his prayer does not count.” Some of the scholars said: this is a strict emphasis: there are no concessions for not praying in jamaa’ah, except for those who have valid excuses.
What are valid excuses for not attending Daily Prayer in jamaa’ah (Cogregation)?
There are several valid excuses for not attending prayer in jamaa’ah, including the following:
1. First Excuse : Sickness
Ibn al-Mundhir (may Allah have mercy on him) said: I do not know of any difference of opinion among the scholars concerning the fact that the sick person may not attend prayers in jamaa’ah because of his sickness.
Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever hears the call (to prayer) and has no excuse not to respond to it -” They said: “What excuse could he have, O Messenger of Allah?” He said: “Fear or sickness, otherwise the prayer that he performed will not be accepted.” (Narrated by Abu Dawood, 464; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani, may Allah have mercy on him , without the phrase “What excuse could he have?”, in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 1/110)
Whatever the case, the sick person has a legitimate reason which means that he is excused from doing acts of worship or may make them up later. In al-Bukhaari it was reported that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was terminally ill, Bilaal would come to him and call him to pray, and he would say, “Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.”
But not every sickness is an excuse for not praying in congregation. What is referred to here is debilitating sickness.
Shaykh Muhammad al-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen said in al-Mumti’ (4/438-439): the sickness which excuses a person from attending prayers in jamaa’ah and Friday prayers is the sickness which will cause him great hardship if the person goes to pray.
The evidence (daleel) for that is as follows:
1. The aayah (interpretation of the meaning): “So keep your duty to Allah and fear Him as much as you can....” [At-Taghaabun 64:16]
2. The aayah (interpretation of the meaning): “Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope....” [Al-Baqarah 2:286]
3. The aayah (interpretation of the meaning): “There is no restriction on the blind, nor any restriction on the lame, nor any restriction on the sick....” [An-Noor 24:61]
Second Excuse: Heavy rainfall or strong winds:
Naafi’ said: Ibn ‘Umar gave the adhaan on a cold night in Dajnaan, then he said: Pray where you are. He told us that on a cold or rainy night during a journey, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would to tell the muezzin to give the adhaan, then immediately afterwards he would say: pray where you are. (Al-Bukhaari, 596).
It was reported that Jaabir said: we went out with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on a journey, and it rained, so he said, “Let whoever among you wishes, pray where he is.” (Narrated by Ahmad, 13827; Muslim, 1127; Abu Dawood, 899).
It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) said to his muezzin on a rainy day: After you have said ‘Ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasool-Allah (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah), do not say ‘Hayya ‘ala’l-salaah (come to prayer); say ‘Sallu fi buyootikum (pray in your houses). It was as if the people found that strange, so he said: Do you find it strange when someone who is better than I did that? – meaning the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) – Calling people to pray Jumu’ah is emphatically obliged, but I did not want to make you come out to walk in the slippery mud. (Agreed upon. Al-Bukhaari, 850; Muslim, 1128). According to a hadeeth narrated by Abu ‘Awaanah from Ibn ‘Umar: a cold or windy night.
Third Excuse: Fear
Because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abaas quoted above – if it is saheeh – in which it says “ (the excuse of) Fear or sickness.”
Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughni (1/631):
Fear is of three types: fear for oneself, fear for one’s wealth or property, and fear for one's family.
1. Fear for oneself: when a person fears that he may be seized by a tyrant, enemy, thief or wild animal, etc., which would cause him harm.
2. Fear for one’s wealth or property: when a person fears a tyrant or thief and the like, or he fears that his house may be robbed or burned down etc., or he has bread in the oven or something cooking on the stove and he fears that it may burn if he goes and does something else, or he has some good which he left with another person, and if he does not catch up with him, he may disappear with his good. These and similar cases are valid excuses for not attending Jumu’ah prayers or prayers in jamaa’ah.
3. Fear that one’s child or family may be lost, or a person’s child is lost but there is the hope of finding him at that time, or he has a sick family member who needs him or he has to stay close to the sick person.
Ibn al-Mundhir said: It was reported that Ibn ‘Umar called upon Sa’eed ibn Zayd in the late morning, and he came to him in al-‘Aqeeq and missed the Jumu’ah prayer. This was the view of ‘Ataa, al-Hasan, al-Oozaa’i and al-Shaafa’i.
Fourth Excuse: When food is ready.
Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If any one of you is eating, let him not hasten (to finish eating) until he has eaten his fill, even if the iqaamah is being given.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 633)
Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughni (1/629):
If dinner is ready at the time of the prayer, it is mustahabb to eat first and then pray, because then one’s heart and mind will be more focused. Ibn ‘Umar ate even though he could hear the imaam reciting (in the prayer).
Then he (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Our companions said: eating dinner takes priority over the prayer in congregation if one is desperate to eat. Al-Shaafa’i also said something similar.
But this excuse will not be accepted from someone who deliberately serves food at the time of the prayer in jamaa’ah, because this is a trick.
Fifth Excuse: Urgent need to pass urine or stools.
Muslim (869) reported from ‘Aa’ishah that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “You should not pray if there is food ready or if you need to pass urine or stools.”
Ibn Qudaamah (al-Mughni 1/630) said: this means, if a person is suppressing (the urge to pass urine etc.), it is makrooh for him to pray until he has answered the “call of nature”, whether he fears that he will miss the prayer in jamaa’ah or not.
What this means is that if he stands up to pray and there is something that will distract him from having the proper attitude of humility and presence of mind, and he goes against that and prays anyway, his prayer will still be valid.
Sixth Excuse: When one feels very drowsy
Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (al-Mumti’, 4/447) said: If a person feels very drowsy, he is excused if he does not attend Jumu’ah or a prayer in jamaa’ah. An example of that is a man who is very tired because of work or traveling, and he is overcome with drowsiness. He can do one of two things: either he can go and pray jamaa’ah even though he is so sleepy and does not know what he is saying, or he can sleep so that the drowsiness will pass and then he can pray in a refreshed and relaxed manner. We say, do the latter, because you have a valid excuse.
For some people, doing wudoo’ gets rid of the drowsiness and refreshes them; in this case a person should not miss the prayer in jamaa’ah. The hadeeth is talking about overwhelming drowsiness.
Seventh Excuse: Strong cold winds on a dark night.
There are two conditions attached to this excuse:
1. The wind should be so cold that it is difficult to go out in it.
2. It should be a strong wind, because a gentle breeze does not cause any difficulty.
THE EXCUSE OF IGNORANCE
Islam excuses the person who is ignorant just as it excuses a person who forgets, or more so. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) excused a person who did not pray well because he did not know how to pray with the proper composure, and he did not order him to repeat his past prayers. He excused a pregnant woman who was experiencing istihaadah (irregular non-menstrual bleeding) because she did not know that prayer and fasting were obligatory upon her even though she was bleeding [because it was not menstrual blood], and he did not order her to make up what she had missed. He excused Udayy ibn Haatim for eating in Ramadaan when he thought that he could distinguish between the (black and white) threads which he had placed beneath his pillow (to determine when the time to start fasting had come), and he did not command him to make up what he had missed. He excused Abu Dharr for not knowing that it was still obligatory to pray even when there was no water; he commanded him to do tayammum but he did not order him to make up what he had missed.
He excused those who rolled in the dust like animals when they heard the command of tayammum, and he did not order them to repeat those prayers. He excused Mu’aawiyah ibn al-Hakam for speaking deliberately during the prayer, because he did not know that this was forbidden, and he did not order him to repeat the prayer. He excused the people of Qubaa’ for praying in the direction of al-Quds after this had been abrogated because they were unaware of this abrogation, and he did not order them to repeat their prayer. The Sahaabah and the imaams after them excused people for committing anything that was haraam if they were unaware of it being forbidden, and they did not impose any punishment for that.
(I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een, 1/273)
Allah excused the man whose joy, when he found his camel in a desolate land after he had despaired of seeing it again, was so great that he said, “O Allah, You are my slave and I am Your lord!” He did not count him as a kaafir because of that, because he made a mistake that was due to his great joy.
(Shifaa’ al-‘Aleel, 1/138)
But we must note here that the ignorant person does not have a permanent excuse. Whoever is able to learn and does not do so, or is able to ask and seek fatwaas and deliberately does not do so, has no excuse.
After looking at these excuses made by sinners and hypocrites, I thought that to complete the benefit (of this discussion), we should look at some of the excuses which good people make for not taking part in or doing things that are mustahabb, or even waajib. Some examples of that are:
In the field of da’wah and seeking knowledge:
Some people give excuses for not attending worthwhile gatherings of good people and lessons by saying things such as the following:
1. Study and homework
3. Not feeling comfortable with the other participants
5. Fear of making an ongoing commitment
6. These gatherings and activities are viewed as being like going to school
7. Conflict between the time of the activity and something else that a person likes to do
8. Poor leisure program
9. Distractions at home
10. No variety in the program
11. Too many people attending the activity
12. The presence of new students whom the person does not know
13. Parents do not let the student go out
14. Attending to family needs
15. There is no one available to take care of younger siblings
16. Family visits
17. Attending courses for work
18. Have to do overtime at work
19. Do not want to stay overnight outside the home
21. Vague excuses such as “I have some problems”
22. No means of transportation
24. Not convinced that the activity or class matters
25. Busy with private tuition
27. Watching sports matches
28. Appointment to meet a friend
29. Do not feel that there is any benefit in the class
30. Has friends who are not involved in the activity and does not want to leave them
31. Needs of one’s wife and children
32. Claim that the class is a repeat
33. The sports/exercise program is limited and is not enough
34. Too few contests and cheap prizes
35. Not interested
These excuses vary in strength and validity. Some of them are valid, such as #s 14, 20 and 22; some of them are feeble, such as #s 9, 27, 32.
The problem is that many of those who do not attend do not appreciate how much they have missed and how much reward they have lost by not being there. If they understood what they have missed, they would do their utmost to resolve their situation and strive to remove the obstacles that are preventing them from attending.
Problems must be dealt with according to each individual case.
1 – In the case of those who have weak excuses:
They must be confronted, advised and dealt with according to the level of their excuses. Some people’s excuses may be accepted straight away, whilst still pointing out to them how much they are missing. Others may need to be questioned further in order to make them realize that their excuses are flimsy. Sometimes keeping quiet when a person makes an excuse may be the best response. It may also be useful to combine clear statements with hints.
It is also necessary to advise adults such as businessmen and employees who keep away from lessons and meetings for the purpose of worldly gains, and remind them that that which is with Allah is better and more lasting. They should be reminded that Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Nay, you prefer the life of this world, (16) Although the Hereafter is better and more lasting” [Al-A’laa 87:16-17]
They should be told how dangerous it is to be distracted by worldly things:
“Beautified for men is the love of things they covet; women, children, much of gold and silver (wealth), branded beautiful horses, cattle and well-tilled land. This is the pleasure of the present world’s life; but Allah has the excellent return (Paradise with flowing rivers) with Him” [Aale ‘Imraan 3:14 – interpretation of the meaning]
“Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His Cause, then wait until Allah brings about His Decision (torment). And Allah guides not the people who are Al‑Faasiqoon (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah).” [At-Tawbah 9:24 – interpretation of the meaning]
They should be reminded that being too busy with their family and children to learn the religion of Allah is a great loss. Allah has warned us against that: “O you who believe! Verily, among your wives and your children there are enemies for you (who may stop you from the obedience of Allah); therefore beware of them! But if you pardon (them) and overlook, and forgive (their faults), then verily, Allah is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” [At-Taghaabun 64:14 – interpretation of the meaning]
We have to be frank but polite. We can say to them, “If you wanted to come you would have prepared yourself and removed all obstacles. Pray to Allah that you will not be one of those whom He discourages and forsakes and to whom it will be said ‘....Sit you among those who sit (at home)’ [At-Tawbah 9:46].”
Those who have valid excuses
There has to be cooperation between the daa’iyahs and those whom they are calling, between the teachers and those whom they are teaching, in order to remove and overcome the obstacles. There are different things that may be done to overcome the problems, including the following:
1- Explaining the importance of time and how to make the most of it.
“And He it is Who has put the night and the day in succession, for such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude” [Al-Furqaan 25:62 – interpretation of the meaning].
2- Always having a plan to help achieve a balance between the various interests of sharee’ah as far as possible, because sharee’ah is based on achieving interests and achieving a balance between them as far as possible.
3- Paying attention to priorities. Things which are fard ‘ayn [obligatory for each individual] come before those which are fard kafaayah [obligatory upon the community, and if some people fulfil them the others are not held accountable]; things which are fard kafaayah come before those which are generally recommended (mustahabb). We should know which things are more important than others so that we can give priority to those which are greater in virtue and reward when there is too much to be done.
4- Convincing parents that Islamic activities do not conflict with studies, by striving to achieve a high level in one's studies.
5- Helping students to overcome their shortcomings in their studies so that they will be able to attend activities.
6- Trying to bring forward or delay some family commitments so that one can attend Islamic activities.
7- Appropriate direct intervention on the part of the teacher or daa’iyah with the parent or guardian of the student, and intervening by seeking permission for the child to attend.
8- Coordinating timetables and seeking to reconcile family commitments with Islamic activities, such as taking a student to the activity after a family commitment or bringing him back from the activity before the commitment starts, so that although he may miss part of it he does not miss all of it.
9- Convincing the student that time is too precious to be wasted in gatherings in which there is no benefit, and that he should teach the people around him about how important time is to him so that they will not distract him with things that are of no benefit to him.
10- Explaining that attending these activities is a form of relaxation and a means of dispelling boredom, in addition to the benefits of increased faith and knowledge that they bring.
11- Preparing programs well and filling them with useful lectures and lessons and moving talks so that the people who attend will feel that they are really benefiting.
12- Using means of motivation in the program such as telling stories, giving examples and paying attention to exciting things that are permissible.
13- Striving to organize a schedule that will leave no room for excuses, such as reducing the number of days that the activity takes up, e.g. making it three or four times a week instead of every day.
14- Not going to extremes by making things obligatory that are not obligatory in sharee’ah, and accepting valid excuses.
15- Striving to resolve sensitive issues among friends and promoting an atmosphere of love. Teaching the participants about the brotherhood of faith by exhorting them and by setting the example.
16- Turning to Allah and asking Him to make things easy and to help us.
“This is the day on which they shall not speak, (35) And permission shall not be given to them so that they should offer excuses (36) Woe on that day to the rejecters”. (Al-Mursalat 77:35-37)
We ask You to make us adhere firmly to Your commands and to follow Your guidance resolutely. May we make the most of all good activities and be safe from sin. Grant us the victory of Paradise and save us from the Fire.
May Allah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions, and grant them peace.
Dear scholars, as we witness nowadays many Imams delivering Friday khutbahs (sermons) without taking steps or making efforts to make that sermons penetrate people’s hearts and have impact on their lives. Friday sermons are no longer aspiring to many, thanks to the poor styles adopted by many Imams in giving khutbah, as if they don’t care whether people are listening or not. Please, give advice on this issue?
is the heart of the Islamic community and the place where the believers
meet day and night to fulfill their obligations to Allah and seek His
guidance and help, glory be to Him.
I aspire to contribute to bettering the quality of the khutbahs in the masjids (mosques). I would like to make the pulpit a true image of Islam’s pure knowledge and supreme education. The masjid is a place where great emotional and intellectual energy is stimulated. This is especially true on Friday when the worshipers listen attentively to the Imam. The Imam explains to them the teachings of Islam and shows them the rules that Allah has put forth, as well as Islam’s pure knowledge and education.
Therefore, I would like to give these brief guidelines for what I believe is essential for the Friday khutbah. These guidelines will make the khutbah a spring for spiritual and intellectual growth:
1. It is recommended that to make khutbah on one main topic. The speaker who talks about many issues distracts the audience from a focus. The result would be that he alternates between different emotions and ideas. Regardless of his eloquence and fluency, he would never succeed in drawing a clear image about the teachings of Islam. Clarity is crucial for education. Ambiguity and excessive generalization is of no use. The Friday khutbah is not a theoretical session, but a practical explanation of the truth.
2. The sub-themes of the khutbah should flow in a logical sequence. The audience should feel as if they are ascending steps. At the end of the khutbah the audience would reach the conclusion that the speaker has aimed for. The speaker should be selective of which scripts facilitate the objective of his speech.
3. The khutbah is mainly discussing the Islamic values, which are derived from the Book of Allah, the Sunnah, and the traditions of the salaf (the early righteous Muslims). Thus, each and everything in the khutbah should be supported by a Qur’anic verse, an authentic hadith, or an acceptable fact. There should be enough contained in these sources for advice and guidance. Therefore, it is not acceptable at all for a khutbah to include non-authentic stories, let alone fabrications. Scholars permitted the use of non-authentic hadiths for certain actions. However, they put on their use the condition that these hadiths do not violate the core Islamic basics and fundamentals. I think that there is enough authentic hadiths for the learned speaker. Moreover, there are enough stories in the hadiths of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), the guided Caliphs, and the leading scholars.
The khutbah should never discuss controversial issues. It should
never present only a single Islamic opinion and leave out others that
are valid. The mosque should unify and not divide people. The Ummah
should be gathered around the fundamentals of iman (faith) that
every person agrees upon versus matters that are subject to personal
opinion. There are numerous principles that can make good topics.
Muslims have suffered enough from divisions among themselves, and it is
about time that the mosques provide unity and harmony.
There is a group of hadiths that promise tremendous rewards for simple
deeds. Highly developed scholars warned that these hadiths should not be
taken literally. They should be put into context. This means considering
the level of sincerity of these good doers. Therefore, a speaker should
never include these hadiths in his khutbah without proper
explanation. Otherwise, he would create a disproportionate
representation of the different categories of deeds.
It is beneficial to mention political and intellectual achievements in
Islamic history. Islam founded a great civilization that sprang from the
intellectual movement that the Qur’an initiated and the human
consciousness that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) awoke.
The objective behind such khutbahs is to raise self-confidence
among Muslims and to remind them of their global mission.
A khutbah that is concise enables the audience to better focus on
its teachings and enables the speaker to convey the message more
clearly. Excessive speech causes people to forget many details. The most
important objectives of the khutbah might be lost in the midst of
all these additions. Can’t one see that a piece of land needs only a
certain number of seeds? A farmer must necessarily uproot the extra
plants to enable the rest of the plants to grow and bear fruits.
Similarly, a human soul does not absorb values unless they are well
defined and well presented. Too much talk and presenting too many facts
would cause the minds of the listeners to overflow with the information,
regardless of how precious those facts are.
Excessive talk might also be caused by a misjudgment of time. A lack of common sense can lead the speaker to think that he needs to say all that he has to say, and that people have to listen attentively, whether or not they like it. This is a grave mistake. Conciseness requires making choices, canceling some parts, and confirming other parts. But random talk requires less effort. Actually, five minutes is enough to convey an immense amount of knowledge. And ten or fifteen minutes is enough for a good khutbah or lecture.”
Excerpted, with slight modifications, from: www.islamonline.net
The khutbha of Jumma is
completed and two fard of Jumma are read. After this the Imam turns and
everyone joins in with dua, is this correct?
What the believer should do is follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), in what he did and did not do. He should do what the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did and refrain from what the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) refrained from. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much” (Al-Ahzaab 33:21)
The imam saying du’aa’ following an obligatory prayer – Jumu’ah or any other – and the congregation saying Ameen is something that was not done by the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), or by any of his companions (may Allah be pleased with them). If it was good they would have done it before us.
Based on that, this action comes under the heading of blameworthy bid’ah (innovation). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever among you lives after I am gone will see great disputes; you must adhere to my Sunnah and the way of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Hold on to it and cling fast to it. And beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (4607) and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces something into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (2697) and Muslim (1718).
Al-Shaatibi (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his book al-I’tisaam (1/349-355) du’aa’ in unison after the prescribed prayers, and he explained that this is an innovation (bid’ah), because it was not done by the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) or by any of the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with the,), or the imams after them.
So we must give up this bid’ah, and strive to recite the dhikrs and du’aa’s that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to say after prayer. The one who wants to say du’aa’ should do so quietly.
And Allah knows best.
Excerpted, with slight modifications, from: http://islamqa.com/index.php?ln=eng